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Watcom calling convention

The Watcom C/C++ compiler also uses the #pragma aux directive that allows the user to specify their own calling convention. As its manual states, Very few users are likely to need this method, but if it is needed, it can be a lifesaver One of the performance benefits that Watcom brought with it that was a pretty big deal at the time was that it's default calling convention used registers for up to the first 4 arguments to called functions. Past that, and the stack would be used as per standard C calling conventions

x86 calling conventions - Wikipedi

Using Watcom's Register-based Calling Convention With TASM

5 Stack layout on x86 fastcall (Watcom) calling convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6 Stack layout on x86 stdcall calling convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7 Stack layout on x86 thiscall (MS) calling convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 These attributes are inspired by the Intel processor architecture and the plethora of function-calling conventions in use by compilers for this architecture. In keeping with the ANSI C and C++ language standards, Watcom C/C++ uses a double underscore (__), or a single underscore followed by an uppercase letter (for example, _S) as a prefix for these keywords. To support compatibility with.

dyncall Manual - Calling Convention

and this calls are made with cdecl but watcom libc malloc uses watcall conventions. So we need a wrapper. void * __cdecl __saveregs malloc_wrapper(unsigned size) { return malloc(size); } #pragma aux malloc_wrapper _malloc void __cdecl __saveregs free_wrapper(void *ptr) { free(ptr); } #pragma aux free_wrapper _fre [ Watcom C++ compiler command line options ] [ Processor options ] -3r 386 register calling conventions -5r Pentium register calling conv. -3s 386 stack calling conventions -5s Pentium stack calling conventions -4r 486 register calling conventions -6r Pentium Pro register call conven. -4s 486 stack calling conventions -6s Pentium Pro stack call.

What platform is Watcom authorative for? 32-bit Dos is all I can think off and varies wildly by vendor. Moreover pascal calling conventions are not limited to Windows. Classic MacOS had them too, default even. I would simply keep pascal as a family of calling conventions right-to-left, callee cleans up stack. Stdcall is then a specific version that als details which registers are saved Calling convention used by the Watcom company and their C++ compiler: stdcall: __stdcall: stored on the stack, stack pointer is corrected by the function code itself before the return: eax, 8 bytes: eax:edx: eax, ecx, edx, st(0) st(7), mm0, mm7, xmm0, xmm7 : Default calling convention for the WinAPI calls and DLL libraries: register: n/a: eax, edx, ecx, other parameters stored on the stack.

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Calling Conventions for 80x87-based Applications. When a source file is compiled by Watcom C/C++ with one of the fpi or fpi87 options, all floating-point arguments are passed on the 80x86 stack. The rules for passing arguments are as follows There are already a few Watcom-related things in the source code. They are all variations around. # ifndef __WATCOMC__. # define access _access. # define chdir _chdir. # define getcwd _getcwd. # define unlink _unlink. # endif // !__WATCOMC__. So, yes, let us know what changes would make FLTK compatible with OpenWatcom Variadic functions fall back to the Watcom stack based calling convention. The Watcom C/C++ compiler also uses the #pragma aux [5] directive that allows the user to specify his own calling convention. As its manual states, Very few users are likely to need this method, but if it is needed, it can be a lifesaver

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The problem is due to the default calling convention of Watcom compiler being different from other compilers for win32 and causing a mismatch between the symbols generated by the Watcom compiler (with an underscore at the end) and the symbol in the libcurl.a static library (having an underscore in front, according to the cdecl convention) Watcom F77 with the full FORTRAN 77 language standard. This package is provided by the National Technical Information Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce in Springfield, Virginia. The validation system was developed by the Federal Software Testing Center. If you find problems in the documentation or have some good suggestions, we would like to hear from you. July, 1997. iii. Trademarks. calling conventions see in section for Auxiliary Pragmas; also see section 16-bit Memory Models. Also, with help of #pragma aux you may describe properties of your function, if you wish to use different calling convention (naming, parameters, result)

The Open Watcom FORTRAN 77 Tools User's Guide describes how to use Open Watcom's software development tools on Intel 80x86-based personal computers with DOS, Windows, or OS/2. The Open Watcom FORTRAN 77 Tools User's Guide describes the following tools: • compile and link utility • assembler • object file library manager • object file disassembler • exe2bin utility • far call. But in the new doc nowhere mentioned about calling convention used (most likely it has not changed). Unfortunately, MSVC++ knows nothing about standard WATCOM register calling conventions and I can not create those functions with that calling conventions... In the new document chapter 4.4 4.4 Trap Files Under Windows NT

Watcom compiler: eax, edx, ebx, ecx: RTL (C) function: return pointer in esi: 64bit: Microsoft x64 calling convention: Windows (Microsoft compiler, Intel compiler) rcx/xmm0, rdx/xmm1, r8/xmm2, r9/xmm3: RTL (C) caller: Stack aligned on 16 bytes. 32 bytes shadow space on stack. The specified 8 registers can only be used for parameter number 1,2,3 and 4. System V AMD64 ABI convention : Linux, BSD. I defined a special pragma which follows the MS calling convention but used the Watcom naming convention : #pragma aux MSC_Compat *_ parm caller [] value struct float struct routine [ax] modify [ax bx cx dx es] which can be used to define main thusly : #pragma aux (MSC_Compat) main; 3) The compiler flag -Zu must be used for SS!=DS, etc. I believe this is equilavent to the MS -Aw flag. I defined a special pragma which follows the MS calling convention but used the Watcom naming convention: #pragma aux MSC_Compat *_ parm caller [] value struct float struct routine [ax] modify [ax bx cx dx es] which can be used to define main thusly: #pragma aux (MSC_Compat) main; 3) The compiler flag -Zu must be used for SS!=DS, etc. I believe this is equilavent to the MS -Aw flag. Anyways.

Watcom compiler: EAX, EDX, EBX, ECX: RTL (C) Callee: Return pointer in ESI. x86-64: Microsoft x64 calling convention: Windows (Microsoft Visual C++, Intel C++ Compiler, Embarcadero compiler), UEFI: RCX/XMM0, RDX/XMM1, R8/XMM2, R9/XMM3: RTL (C) Caller: Stack aligned on 16 bytes. 32 bytes shadow space on stack. The specified 8 registers can only be used for parameters 1 through 4. System V AMD64. Calling conventions, passing parameters from asm to c . Author Message; JKE #1 / 5. Calling conventions, passing parameters from asm to c . I am puzzled as how different compilers pass parameters. I trying to find a fixed way how to pass parameters from asm to c. My asm procedure makes calls to c functions. Sometimes registers are uses, sometimes not. How to get this fixed. I am using Watcom.

Open/Watcom C/C++ · Issue #156 · NationalSecurityAgency

  1. Here is what I found at that time: ----- It appears that Watcom by default uses a different calling convention when linking, opposed to gcc and MS Visual C++. This is important because the Stata executable expects calling conventions which are used by Visual C++ and gcc. It is my understanding that by default, Watcom appends and underscore (_) to function calls for name mangling. Borland's.
  2. Open Watcom C/C++. Last modified: Sun Apr 26 14:15:11 EDT 2020 These are DWF's installation notes on Open Watcom C/C++ version 1.9, released in 2010. The last update of the daily development snapshot sources occurred in 2015, but a fork is under active development.. Open Watcom can produce the full range of DOS executable types on either a DOS or Linux host, but its language implementations.
  3. Watcom register calling convention. Watcom does not support the __fastcall keyword except to alias it to null. The register calling convention may be selected by command line switch. (However, IDA uses __fastcall anyway for uniformity.) Up to 4 registers are assigned to arguments in the order eax, edx, ebx, ecx. Arguments are assigned to registers from left to right. If any argument cannot be.
  4. like calling conventions, name mangeling set off with __cdecl. Register vs stack calling. That's what I remember. I assume, the latter one is still an issue for my attempt to mix code built with g++ and DLL's built with OW. The problem is, that - even only one parameter functions aren't capable to pass the parameter correctly. In the function I.

  1. HiIs it possible to create a custom calling convention in Visual Cpp (2010)? More specifically I would like to pass the first argument in EAX.ThanksPS: The goal is performance so I am not interested in a __declspec(naked) wrapper function
  2. Sample: Calling CPLEX C API from Fortran using Open Watcom. Answer . The CPLEX Callable Library (C API) can be invoked from any environment that can call C functions. The CPLEX documentation includes some very important guidelines and examples for invoking the CPLEX functions from within a Fortran environment. These examples rely on Compaq Visual Fortran and Digital Visual Fortran. Attached is.
  3. Calling Conventions. System V ABI; Watcom C/C++ Visual Studio. Visual C++ Runtime; TCC; Smaller C; Other Compilers; more... Assemblers. GAS (GNU as, part of binutils) FASM; NASM; YASM; On the difference between AT&T and Intel Opcode syntax; more... Linkers. LD (GNU ld, part of binutils) Link Archiver (GNU ar, part of binutils) more... Emulators . Bochs; QEMU; Virtual PC; VMware; VirtualBox.
  4. Calling Conventions. In the above code, you can see the word __stdcall in the function's prototype. Because it starts with a double underscore, it is, of course, a compiler-specific extension, more exactly a Microsoft-specific one. Any compiler that supports development of Win32-based applications must support this or an equivalent one. A function that is marked with __stdcall uses the.
  5. call _Test . Watcom seems to to grasp the parameter straight from ax register. Is there a common ground? I'd like to have the code work same on both compilers. I'm learning this as I go and the TASM manuals have nice examples and examples usually look like this: mov ax,55d push ax call _Test add sp,2 . To add more ingredients to the soup there's the Pascal calling convention where I can drop.
  6. 3.2 FASTCALL Register Calling Convention In 16- and 32-bit mode, one may use either the Microsoft or the Watcom register calling convention.It's selected by option -zf.. The Microsoft FASTCALL convention uses registers AX, DX and BX in 16-bit for the first 3 parameters, and registers ECX and EDX in 32-bit for the first 2 parameters which are small enough to fit into a register
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A function calling convention is a convention that specifies how the parameters are passed to the function when it is called, how the return value is returned to the caller, and what the processor register state is expected to be upon entry to and exit from the function. It is an interface contract between function callers and the called function. The interface contract encompasses several. Watcom register based calling convention. Watcom does not support the __fastcall keyword except to alias it to null. The register calling convention may be selected by command line switch. (However, IDA uses __fastcall anyway for uniformity) Up to 4 registers are assigned to arguments in the order eax, edx, ebx, ecx. Arguments are assigned to registers from left to right. If any argument.

Watcom C v10.x and v11.0 This is a good compiler, a bit buggy. [WCC386 | WPP386] -s -zl -fpi87 -fp3 -mf -3s -zp1 -zdp -zfp -zgp yourfile.c There any many options here but basically they do the following: use stack calling convention, use inline FPU 80387, and make sure that Watcom does not use GS or FS for it's own purpose is there a C compiler that uses Pascal calling conventions? ie. pushes parameters from left to right and doesnt use variable number of parameters? or is there such a patch for gcc? thanks in advance mindvnas. mindvnas . Top. RE:c compiler question. by carbonBased » Tue Apr 15, 2003 11:00 pm . I believe Borland's [Turbo] C/C++ had a keyword for functions that would tell the compiler to use the. However the area where WATCOM really shines is in register calling convention and floating point math. In this section I will cover the runtime differences, which are few. The tools and how to use them (compared to Watcom) and what optimizations switches you would like to use (based on what you used for WATCOM). Runtime Difference. The nice thing about standards, is that they differ very.

C/C++ Compilers - users

  1. i. 11 1 1 bronze badge. 1. vote. 1answer 290 views Which Registers are Saved and Not Saved in RISC.
  2. Patch for the Sybase Watcom C/C++ and Fortran compiler products V11.In 2003, the Watcom C/C++ and Fortran compilers were released as an open source project under a new name, Open Watcom
  3. Is the limitation only because Heretic calls libc functions using the Watcom convention (eax, edx, ebx, ecx) You really want watcall as the global default calling convention, then change the few variadic functions manually to use cdecl. I think this can't be changed without recompiling. :(LXLoader.java contains a line like this: return List. of (new LoadSpec (this, 0, new.
  4. Using a consistent calling convention (one that both the C compiler underlying LOADLIBRARY, and the OpenWatcom FORTRAN 77 compiler agree on) is key to successfully loading the library. With other FORTRAN compilers it may be necessary to consult the vendor documentation for the appropriate pragma directive to use a calling convention that is compatible with C code

The attached set of patches adds support for OS/2 using Watcom compiler (tested with Open Watcom 1.9). My only interest was building a working dll (the last patch in the set adds a makefile for it), therefore I did not touch other places: If there is interest, I can do so. Regards.--O.S. Dave Yeo 2017-01-22 17:29:09 UTC. Permalink. Post by Ozkan Sezer The attached set of patches adds support. X86 calling conventions. This article describes the calling conventions used when programming x86 architecture microprocessors. [1] 63 relations: Apple II series, Application binary interface, Application programming interface, Berkeley Software Distribution, BIOS, Borland, Borland Turbo C, C (programming language), Call stack, Calling convention, Compiler, Component Object Model, Delphi (IDE.

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I need an idea how to call the VC compiler from rtwin in release 14. I'm afraid this is not possible in the Real-Time Windows Target in R14. Generally, it's usually not a good idea to link pre-compiled binary cod There's an important mismatch in calling conventions that apparently can't be solved with a compiler switch or a pragma. When using the stack-based calling convention, which plug-ins must, Watcom 10.0a expects functions that return floating-point numbers to put them in specific registers, while LightWave®'s code leaves them at the top of the FPU stack. You'll encounter this whenever a plug-in. Watcom: eax, edx, ebx, ecx: C: function: return pointer in esi 64bit: Microsoft x64 calling convention: Windows (Microsoft-Compiler, Intel-Compiler) rcx/xmm0, rdx/xmm1, r8/xmm2, r9/xmm3: C: caller: Stack aligned auf 16. 32 bytes shadow space auf dem stack. Die spezifizierten 8 Register können nur für Parameter 1, 2, 3 and 4 verwendet werden (z. B. entweder rcx oder xmm0, aber nicht beide. Calling conventions depend somewhat on the platform. On Linux, GCC provides the defacto standard. This page goes into some detail about the pros and cons of various calling conventions on Linux (albeit with a bit of hyperbole): Often you will be told that using C library (libc) is the only way, and direct system calls are bad. This is true, to. Programmer Reference Manual LabWindows/CVI Programmer Reference Manual December 1999 Edition Part Number 320685E-0

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Terms and keywords related to: Watcom Sybase. Compile The Watcom C / C + + compiler also uses the # pragma aux directive that allows the user to specify their own calling convention. In 2003, the Watcom C / C + + and Fortran compilers were released as an open source project under a new name, Open Watcom. In addition, FoxPro2 was originally built on WatCOM C + +, which had its own memory extender-at that time state-of-the-art. The Open Watcom C.

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-3r 386 register calling conventions-3s 386 stack calling conventions-4r 486 register calling conventions-4s 486 stack calling conventions-5r Pentium register calling conventions-5s Pentium stack calling conventions-6r Pentium Pro register calling conventions-6s Pentium Pro stack calling conventions .globl caller caller: pushl %ebp movl %esp, %ebp pushl $3 pushl $2 pushl $1 call callee addl $12, %esp addl $5, %eax leave ret 호출 함수는 함수 호출이 반환된 뒤 스택을 정리한다. 리눅스/GCC에서 이중점/ 부동소수점 의 값은 x87 의사(擬似) 스택을 통해 스택 위로 다음과 같이 푸시(push)된다 create link library for VC++ 2005 using Open Watcom C++ (too old to reply) Lynn McGuire 2011-04-13 16:07:35 UTC. Permalink. Hi, I am using Open Watcom C++ 1.9 in my app wlib /fa dii2vc.lib +..\dii2vbas.dll to create a link library from my OW 1.9 created Win32 DLL. Now this link library used to work fine for VC++ 6 and 2003 several years ago. However, I just retested the functionality for the.

C calling convention - the 64 bit x86 c calling conventio

Preface Open Watcom C is an implementation of ISO/ANSI 9899:1990 Programming Language C. The standard was developed by the ANSI X3J11 Technical Committee on the C Programming Lan I'd strongly suggest making the functions passed in this way _stdcall rather than _cdecl, since it is a pretty safe bet that the Watcom _cdecl calling convention is different to the Microsoft or Borland one On MSVC, there is also a different type for each of the three different calling conventions: __cdecl, __stdcall, and __fastcall. You make your function pointer point to a function float some_func(int, char *) like this: C++ my_func_ptr = some_func; When you want to invoke the function that you stored, you do this: C++ (*my_func_ptr)(7, Arbitrary String); You are allowed to cast from one.

[16-bit DOS] Cannot link properly Borland-based static

Everyone can use Watcom with standard __cdecl calling conventions by passing proper command line options to it. Probably the first step for Juras would be to try compiling Allegro for Watcom with stack based calling conventions. PS. I had some experience with Watcom compiler in the past The Open Watcom Fortran/C/C++ compiler, binary distribution -V2 for

Integration of Open Watcom C++ compiler - details

Watcom Borland Microsoft VC++ More on Watcom vs MS Calling Conventions Dynamic Loading Basics Since the original XLISP-STAT release most major operating systems have introduced shared libraries along with some form of interface to allow user code to dynamically load shared libraries. While there are differences, the mechanism are fairly similar and can for the most part be made to emulate each. This function calling convention was introduced by Watcom in their C++ compiler: stdcall: __stdcall: passed on the stack; parameters are removed by the function: eax, 8 bytes: eax:edx: eax, ecx, edx, st(0), st(7), mm0, mm7, xmm0, xmm7: The default calling convention for Windows API functions in DLLs: register : n/a: eax, edx, ecx, any remaining parameters are passed on the stack: eax: eax, ecx. -3s 386 stack calling conventions -5s Pentium stack calling conventions-4r 486 register calling conventions -6r Pentium Pro register call conven. -4s 486 stack calling conventions -6s Pentium Pro stack call conven. Top. Log in to post comments; Sergey Kostrov (Blackbelt) Wed, 01/13/2016 - 23:06 [ Watcom C++ compiler command line options ] [ Floating-point processor options ]-fpc calls to. Open Watcom C is an implementation of ISO/ANSI 9899:1990 Programming Language C. The standard was developed by the ANSI X3J11 Technical Committee on the C Programming Language. In addition to the full C language standard, the compiler supports numerous extensions for the Intel 80x86-based personal computer environment. The compiler is also partially compliant with the ISO/IEC 9899:1999.

Talk:X86 calling conventions - Wikipedi

5. Calling conventions for different C++ compilers and operating systems By Agner Fog. Copenhagen University College of Engineering. Copyright ' 2004 - 2012 The C and C++ compilers have been fixed to properly declare variable names based on calling convention specifiers. This fixes problems with building code using IBM SOM. Note that the current. Calling conventions for different C++ compilers and operating systems. By Nytro, January 29, 2012 in Programare. Reply to this topic; Start new topic; Recommended Posts. Nytro 4770 Posted January 29, 2012. Nytro . Administrator.

Intercepting DLL libraries calls — API hooking in practic

Calling Conventions Demystified, The __cdecl calling convention creates larger executables than __stdcall, because it requires each function call to include stack cleanup code. In theory, it could be that stdcall is faster and generates smaller code because it allows to combine popping the arguments with popping the locals, but OTOH with cdecl, you can do the same thing, too, if you're clever. Watcom . It was originally written in Watcom C + +, later in Microsoft Visual C + + 6 . 0. This compiler uses the code generator from the Watcom C compiler, which produces superior machine code to other C compilers. The Watcom C / C + + compiler also uses the # pragma aux directive that allows the user to specify their own calling convention Try add_int_ with the underscore at the end (in your .asm file). I think that's the way Watcom likes it. Best, Frank. Logged mohammadk. Jr. Member; Posts: 4; Re: [dos 16-bit] assembly from c using openwatcom « Reply #2 on: July 27, 2019, 05:22:52 PM » That solved it many thanks . Logged mohammadk. Jr. Member; Posts: 4; Re: [dos 16-bit] assembly from c using openwatcom « Reply #3 on: July.

Watcom C uses a register-based calling convention. See sections 7.4, 7.5, 10.4, and 10.5 in cuserguide.pdf in the Watcom documentation. Individual functions can be declared to use the normal, stack-based calling convention. GCC can be made to use a register calling convention by compiling with gcc -mregparm=NNN See the GCC documentation for. Probably we should ignore it now switch to register > > calling convention and then if possible look for some solutions > > which can force using C calling convention for exported Harbour > > functions. > It also causes that watcom builds cannot utilized > harbour.dll created with non-watcom compiler, which > is a problem, because in windows unified build I > include harbour.dll built with. WATCOM stack-based) calling convention for your exported functions. If, however, you want your DLL to be callable from environments such as Microsoft Visual Basic, you must declare your exported functions with the _stdcall calling convention. You should do this by explicitly defining the functions with the _stdcall keyword. This is true whether or not you choose to make _stdcall the default. An obj file using the Watcom assembler. -Ccxxx set the default calling convention to XXX. -CD Create dynamic library. -Ce Compile using emulated floating point instructions. -Cfxxx Set the used floating point instruction set to xxx. -Cg Generate PIC code. -Chxxx Reserves xxx bytes heap. xxx should be between 1024 and 67107840. -C Thanks for explaining Watcall, I didn't knew this calling convention. Quote. Watcall is FASTCALL using EAX, ECX, EDX, and EBX. Regarding Watcall, the fifth and the further parameters are passed to the stack, is that correct? Another variant of my custom invoke macro could handle Watcall. Edit : Quote. Watcom compiler The Watcom compiler doesn't conform to the register usage conventions in.

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